Liminal Dreaming is a method of working with hypnagogia and hypnompompia, those floaty and sometimes uncanny trance states we pass through as we fall into sleep at night and climb towards waking in the morning. Such hypnagogic and hypnopompic visions—together called hypnoidal dreams—surf the line of consciousness, and they also emerge during delicious naps and delirious fatigue.

My interest in liminal dreaming arises from my own incredible explorations of these spaces. Over my fifteen years of working seriously with dreams, I discovered an ability to dream while still physically awake. The experience lies somewhere between thought and hallucination, as the meandering mind rehashes and remixes abstract ideas and memories while slipping in and out of the visionary animation of the dream. In this edge realm between conscious and unconscious, there's the possibility of encountering our own visionary mind without the heavy hand of the ordinary ego, but also without simply reacting to whatever unusual things happen in the fully dreaming world.

Hypnoidal dreams happen during flux periods in the nervous system, when brain waves jump around from one settled state (Alpha, Theta, REM) to another as we fall asleep or wake up. Betwixt settled states lies the liminal dream and its host of hypnoidal mind states: the strange faces seen as we slip into sleep (hypnagogia); the thoughts that drift across the border into dream and back again while you slowly wake (hypnopompia); involuntary jolts of the body (called myclonic jerks); remarkably realistic and uncanny auditory experiences; the bizarre thrills of sleep paralysis when your still waking mind realizes it's in a paralyzed and dreaming body.

Liminal dreaming is about exploring this crepuscular space, and it is a practice that can be cultivated. Much like lucid dreaming (but considerably easier to learn), liminal dreaming has a rich history. From Tibetan Buddhists to Salvador Dali to August Kekulé, who discovered the benezene ring in hypnagogic dream, liminal dream practices have been developed and used across time and cultures.

If you’re interested in pursuing extraordinary states of mind, experimenting with your own wondrous consciousness, please give liminal dreaming a try. Write and tell me about your experiences!

Liminal Dreaming Exercises

The Dali/Edison Method
Many people have tapped the creative potential of hypnagogia. Both Salvador Dali and Thomas Edison independently of each other invented more or less the same exercise, one you can adapt to suit your purposes. When feeling tired, each man would sit in chair holding something in one or both hands (Edison used balls in both hands, Dali a solid, brass, Spanish key in one hand) over metal plates placed on the floor that would produce a clanging sound when the thing held in hand dropped. Edison kept a pad nearby to write out ideas. Dali kept a sketch pad. Each would sit in the chair and start to drift off. Once hypnagogia gave way to sleep, the balls or key would drop onto the plate and wake the holder. This exercise works well during the day, at nap time, or else when tired at night before bedtime.
The Vanishing Point
The basic idea here is to try and stay awake enough to become aware of the very moment when you fall asleep. Really pay attention to your thoughts. Monitor what's happening in your body as your limbs relax and your breathing slows. Follow your drifting mind very attentively. It took me a long time to develop this skill, but it's been one of the most rewarding dream producers. I've definitely had some of my trippiest dream experiences with this one. Fair warning, though: this isn't a great exercise if you have a hard time falling asleep and aren't getting enough sleep. Trying to retain awareness with such focus when dropping off may keep you awake for a bit longer. Well worth it, though, when it pays off.
Feedback Loop
This exercise is about surfing the edge of consciousness, moving back and forth between thought and dream. It’s also a great way to practice the Vanishing Point exercise. In bed, relax your body and mind as much as possible. Then, with eyes closed, start to look for whatever visuals appear in your mind’s eye. Breathe slowly and softly into the image, allowing it to take shape, to move and shift on its own. Let you mind wander undirected. If you find yourself thinking too hard to fall asleep, unfocus your attention. Let the shifting visual and drifting thought shift into dream. If you start to fall fully asleep, sharpen your consciousness. The trick is to do it only slightly, so you don’t completely wake. At its best, this exercise allows you to surf the edge of waking and dream for long spells of time. This is a great exercise to teach yourself the art of liminal dreaming.
Oneirogens: Consumables
An oneirogen is any substance, practice, or experience that promotes or enhances dream states. Many of the oneirogens used for the Oneironauticum can also be used for liminal dreaming. Most notably, a 3 mg dose of melatonin is particularly effective for inducing sleep paralysis during hypnagogia, especially if you’re prone to this experience. Sleep Paralysis occurs when the mind awakens but remains partly in the dream, while the body remains paralyzed as during sleep. While some people find sleep paralysis terrifying, embracing it and working with it can yield fascinating results. Check out Sleep Paralysis, a guide written by my pal Ryan Hurd, who runs Two other consumable oneirogens that work well for liminal dreaming are Calea Zacatechcichi and Galantamine, or red spider lily. Follow the instructions I provide on my Oneirogens page, expect take them 30 – 45 minutes before bed rather than right before. Unlike most dream practices, liminal dreaming works extremely well in combination with mind altering substances. If you’re someone who tweaks your consciousness with such methods, try the Feedback Loop exercise.
Oneirogens: Tech
In recent years, several technologies have been developed or popularized as means of experimenting with mind. As an early, active member of the Consciousness Hacking movement, I’ve spent some time exploring technologies that can be used in liminal dream practices. Although they’ve been around since the 1970s, binaural beats are currently undergoing a resurgence of interest thanks to the large number of phone apps that can so easily produce them. The basic idea? Tones or frequencies are used to entrain brainwaves. When two different frequencies enter the head through the right and left ears, the brain synthesizes the difference between them. This creates a rhythm that simulates or triggers a brain state. There are a wide range of binaural beats apps that attempt to trigger hypnagogia. Experiment with different apps to find the one that works best for you. You can also try working with a voice activated sound recorder (there are several phone apps that do this). Simply lay it on the pillow when you nap or when you go to sleep (it’ll still be there in the morning) so you can narrate your experience as you move in or out of the liminal dream state.
The Morning Linger
While most of the exercises listed here are specific to hypnagogia, the morning linger is a way of working with hypnopompia. We often wake from REM, a state in which brainwaves, measured by EEG, look the same as they do when you’re fully awake. If you have the time to wake slowly and aren’t the kind of (short circadian rhythm) person who wakes up completely and pops out of bed, this is a great practice for you. Anyone who plays an instrument or has a physical practice like yoga or dance knows that the body has memory. Sleeping isn’t as far from that as you might think. We tend to sleep most often in the same three or four positions. For example, I often lie curled on my left side with my left fist against my forehead. To practice the morning linger, try to wake as slowly as possible, staying relaxed and keeping the mind calm and unfocused. Move into one of the positions in which you frequently sleep and relax into it. Dreams that you might not have remembered will be unlocked by putting your body into the posture it was in when you had the dream. Lie there with eyes closed and left your mind drift. It will cross that permeable border between thought, imagination, and dream. Once you’ve spent some time there, shift into one of your other sleeping positions and try again.
Dream Cruising
This one requires traveling in a vehicle in which you can sleep. Obviously, that means you can't be driving. You also have to be able to get comfortable enough in the vehicle to doze off. I drive a VW camper van, so it's easy for me. I just lie on the back bench while my spouse drives. Any backseat of a car will do, as long as it's sufficiently sized for you to nap. This practice works best if you're traveling for some length of time, maybe an hour or more, and if you're driving when you're sleepy. It’s a great exercise for road trips. I recommend keeping something with you that allows you to voice record. A smartphone with a recording app is good. Alternately, just share any dream experiences you have with the driver upon waking.
Public Napping
To undertake this exercise, you need to have enough confidence to nap someplace public, as the name suggests. I had really good luck doing this at a party. I've also done this in Golden Gate Park to good effect. If there's a time of day when you start to feel groggy, or even better if there's already a time of day when you sometimes nap, try leaving your home and napping someplace less private. I've napped in my VW van parked on the street. You do have to feel secure enough to doze off, so if you can't imagine going to the beach and lying down and napping on your own, take a friend to watch over you. Voice recorders or a pen and paper are good tools to have at hand.
Dream Incubation
This exercise builds on the Morning Linger. Dream incubation is an ancient practice of planting the seed of an idea you want to work through in your dreams, maybe an issue in your life you want to solve, a creative idea you’re working through, or even code you’re trying to build. When you go to sleep at night, lie in one of the positions in which you normally sleep and contemplate the idea you’re planting in your mind. Meditate on it, let it seep into your body like the way you feel a drink of hot liquid warming your stomach. Make sure you do this when you can stay in bed a long time the next morning. When you wake, practice the Morning Linger, except concentrate on the position you laid in when you set your intention. Keep a voice activated recorder (probably an app on your phone) next to you so you talk through what you’re experiencing without changing position.

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Have you had liminal dream experiences? Share your stories with the liminal dreaming community. In fall, 2015, a repository of liminal dreams will be added to this site.

During hypnagogia, when you fall asleep, have you had fantastical visions, tuned into alien radio stations, or watched as swirling light patterns resolve into faces that all turn to look your way? Maybe it’s the feeling of falling, or of jerking limbs. Perhaps you’ve had a succubus or incubus lover. You may have found yourself paralyzed, seemingly awake but still in a dream. Sometimes when my body falls asleep, my mind stays awake and starts to meander toward dream through dissolving thought.

During hypnopompia, when you surface from sleep into consciousness in the morning, do you have hazy half thoughts, ideas that drift over the border into dream and back again? Is it sometimes sexy? Do you get confused about reality?

This is all liminal dreaming. Play with your own mind! It’s the most finely tuned and responsive plaything you’ll ever have. Give one of my exercises a whirl. If you have other ways you cultivate liminal dreaming, drop me a line. And send me your dreams to post to the site. Share, read, and learn everything you need to know to become a champion liminal dreamer!

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About the Dreamer

Jennifer Dumpert is a San Francisco-based writer and lecturer, and the founder and leader of the Oneironauticum, an international dream group that explores the visionary experience of dreams as a means of exploring and experimenting with consciousness.

She is a contributor to Reality Sandwich, and has published in journals such as Dreamflesh and Dream Time. She also wrote “Meeting in Dream Worlds: Oneironauticum”, a chapter in Exploring the Edge Realms of Consciousness: Liminal Zones, Psychic Science, and the Hidden Dimensions of the Mind. She has also served as adjunct faculty teaching dreamwork at Pacifica Graduate Institute.

In the summer of 2015, Jennifer began offering workshops on “Liminal Dreaming” a practice she developed as an alternative to lucid dreaming. Practitioners of liminal dreaming work with hypnagogia and hypnopompia, exploring the edges of consciousness. She will give a three day workshop on liminal dreaming at the Lightning at a Bottle festival, and will offer shorter workshops at the Women’s Visionary Congress conference and at a festival that prefers to not be named online (cough cough Stick cough).

Jennifer has led workshops on developing visionary dream practices at festivals such as Symbiosis and Synergenesis, at institutions such as Esalen and the Ojai Foundation, and at conferences such as the International Association for the Study of Dreams conference, the 2008 Women’s Visionary Congress, and Bonus: Creative Week, in Mexico City. Excerpts of some of her workshops, as well as details about the Oneironauticum, can be viewed at Since 2008, she has posted a daily dream to Twitter as @OneiroFer.